James Madison – Republican Government – No Nobility

James Madison, Federalist, no. 39, 250--53 16 Jan. 1788 The first question that offers itself is, whether the general form and aspect of the government be strictly republican? It is evident that no other form would be reconcileable with the genius of the people of America; with the fundamental principles of the revolution; or with … Continue reading James Madison – Republican Government – No Nobility

Montesquieu – Democracy versus Aristocracy/Tyranny

Montesquieu, Spirit of Laws, bk. 2, CH. 2 1748 2.--Of the Republican Government, and the Laws in relation to Democracy When the body of the people is possessed of the supreme power, it is called a democracy. When the supreme power is lodged in the hands of a part of the people, it is then … Continue reading Montesquieu – Democracy versus Aristocracy/Tyranny

John Locke -Natural Law & Governance

Second Treatise, sections 4-15 4. To understand Political Power right, and derive it from its Original, we must consider what State all Men are naturally in, and that is, a State of perfect Freedom to order their Actions, and dispose of their Possessions, and Persons as they think fit, within the bounds of the Law of Nature, … Continue reading John Locke -Natural Law & Governance

Articles of Confederation

One of the early documents leading to the writing and adoption of the Constitution of the United States of America. The Articles of Confederation had no real teeth for enforcement, maintaining equality among the states, nor provision for defending the nation, yet, much was learned from this experiment. 1 Mar. 1781 Tansill 27--37 To all … Continue reading Articles of Confederation

US Declaration of Independence

IN CONGRESS, JULY 4, 1776. THE UNANIMOUS DECLARATION OF THE THIRTEEN UNITED STATES OF AMERICA. WHEN, in the Course of human Events, it becomes necessary for one People to dissolve the Political Bands which have connected them with another, and to assume, among the Powers of the Earth, the separate and equal Station to which … Continue reading US Declaration of Independence

The Declaration of Arbroath 1320 — English Translation – Liberty Foundation

To the most Holy Father and Lord in Christ, the Lord John, by divine providence Supreme Pontiff of the Holy Roman and Universal Church, his humble and devout sons Duncan, Earl of Fife, Thomas Randolph, Earl of Moray, Lord of Man and of Annandale, Patrick Dunbar, Earl of March, Malise, Earl of Strathearn, Malcolm, Earl … Continue reading The Declaration of Arbroath 1320 — English Translation – Liberty Foundation